Below are the points listed to know about the Traceroute function There are 3 types of Traceroute – UDP traceroute, ICMP traceroute, TCP traceroute UDP traceroute is by default in most of the OS. Windows OS tracert is ICMP based Consider UDP traceroute for the below example RTR0 ———— RTR1 ————– RTR2 ———- Destination When […]

Layer 2 frames doesn’t have a mechanism to avoid switching loops by itself like a TTL in Layer 3. So IEEE standard 802.1D Spanning tree protocol (STP) is used to avoid the switching path loops by creating a single path between the source and destination. ..contd

I have listed RSTP questions below for learning What are the port roles in RSTP What are the states of ports in RSTP How RSTP acheives faster convergence What is proposal/ agreement process What is the port role and port state when the link comes up initially What is the message type field in RSTP […]

I have listed some of the STP questions below for learning. Why STP bridge priority is the multiples of 4096 What are the states of STP ports What are the different timers used in STP What is the port identifier and where it is used What are the different BPDUs, explain What is the default […]

Here I am listing the operations of those network types Broadcast, multi-access network – single mode of operation Point-to-point network – single mode of operation NBMA network – five modes Non-Broadcast – RFC Point-to-multipoint – RFC Point-to-point – Cisco prop. Broadcast – Cisco prop. Point-to-multipoint – Cisco prop. Non-Broadcast mode (Default mode) – No broadcast, multicast […]

General – OSPF has three tables Neighbor table – List of all neighbors. Topology table – Has the entire map of the whole area. Routing table – Best path to the destination. – Uses Dijkstra’s shortest path first (SPF) algorithm to find the best path – Sends triggered updates – Sends periodic updates (LS refresh) […]

OSPF is a network layer protocol that uses protocol number 89. For better understanding, I will explain briefly about the parameters used in OSPF in divisions OSPF uses its own communication packets to its neighbors for various transitions. Hello packet Database Description packet (DBD) Link State Request (LSR) Link State Update (LSU) Link State Acknowledgement Hello […]